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Brucellosis is an infection of domestic and wild animals that may be transmitted to humans through direct animal contact or by consumption of unpasteurized dairy products from infected animals. Cattle, goats, and sheep are the most common source of infection, though pigs, buffalo, camels, and yaks may be important in certain areas. The incubation period usually ranges from one to four weeks. Symptoms may include fever, malaise, depression, loss of appetite, headache, muscle aches, and back pain. Complications may include arthritis, hepatitis, endocarditis, and meningitis. Infection may be short-lived or last for years. Diagnosis is made by blood cultures or serologic tests. Treatment options include doxycycline plus rifampin, doxycycline plus streptomycin, and rifampin plus a quinolone. No vaccine is available at this time. Prevention depends upon avoidance of unpasteurized dairy products and limiting contact with potentially infected animals and their bodily fluids.
From the World Health Organization
From the Centers for Disease Control
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